Neuropsychological Testing

When is neuropsychological evaluation useful?

It is recommended for any case in which brain-based impairment in cognitive function or behavior is suspected. The following list, though not exhaustive, represents some common reasons for referral, and the questions involve diagnosis or ruling out a condition, describing the impact of a condition on cognitive functioning and daily functioning, and making recommendations for treatment, intervention, or accommodation.

  • Traumatic Brain Injury (from head injury, stroke, infection, lack of oxygen) (While more severe injuries are detected with routine brain imaging, neuropsychological examination can still be important to understand how these injuries have impacted on functioning, and more mild but still significant injuries may not be detected with routine imaging)
  • Concussion- especially if there have been multiple or complicated concussions
  • Stroke, Transischemic Attacks (TIAs), and cerebrovascular disease
  • Learning Disabilities
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD/ “ADD”) or apparent problems with attention, impulse control, organization, or learning, which could be caused by a variety of conditions other than ADHD
  • Epilepsy or other seizure disorder
  • Multiple sclerosis or other demyelinating diseases
  • Parkinson’s Disease
  • Huntington’s Disease
  • Alzheimer’s Disease or other dementia
  • Other neurodegenerative diseases
  • Brain tumors
  • Brain infections
  • Toxic exposure (including alcohol and drug exposure prior to birth, lead, toxic chemicals, mercury, etc...)
  • Cognitive impairment in the context of alcohol or drug abuse
  • Depression, Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia or other psychiatric conditions that can involve cognitive impairment
  • Anxiety disorder versus ADHD
  • Sleep apnea or other conditions that may cause insufficient oxygen
  • Spina Bifida, Cerebral Palsy, Neurofibromatosis, Tuberous Sclerosis, hydrocephalus, agenesis of the corpus collosum
  • Unexplained changes in functioning with general medical conditions having been ruled out- problems at work, in school, and/or in social or emotional functioning